What is computer Basic information in a computer?
Mostly you know very well about computers, what is computer in today’s generation, everyone knows about it, but there is some important information about computers about which few people know, in easy words about computers. Today we will reading this article about computer in easy word and learn more important information about computer.
So let us understand what is computer. A computer is an electronic device through which we perform any task well. The computer computes arithmetic and logical operations. The word computer is derived from the Latin language “computer” which means calculating.
There are three main tasks in a computer.
The first one is input data i.e. input any alphabet character through keyboard or mouse. It is a type of data.
The second task is data processing.
We all know that computer does not know our language. When we input a data, the computer understands it as 0, 1 i.e. machine language. The process of converting our language into machine language is called processing.
The third task of the computer is output.
Processed data is displayed on our output screen, it is called output. In next section we will learn about how many types of output?
Input Data -> Processing -> Output Data
Full form of computer is in the minds of many people that what the full form of computer is. Let us tell you, there is no full form of computer but Unrealistic full form of computer.
Unrealistic full form of computer:
C- Commonly O- operated M- machine P- particularly used for T- Technical and E- Educational R- Research.
This means that the computer is a common operating machine specifically for technical education research.
Who invented computer?
The father of computer is called Charles Babbage. Charles Babbage first designed mechanical computer. Mechanical computer is also named Analytical Engine. Mechanical computer used to insert data by punch card. Analytical engine was invented in 1873.
History and Generation of Computer
We will read about the history of computers through generation. Generation of computers is mainly five. Generation means when and what new changes were made in computers, we will read about it.
The first generation of computers
first generation of computers between 1946– 1959. The first generation had a vacuum tube base. The vacuum tube was used for circuitry. The magnetic drum was used for memory. The first generation computer used to be very large in size and used a lot of electricity to run it, due to which it got very hot. This was a big problem. In the first generation computer, two computers were mainly made first. UNIVAC and second ENIAC computer first generation computers used machine language.
Second Generation Computer
Second generation computer was used between 1959- 9165. This computer was transistor based. In the different between first generation computer and second generation the second generation computer take very less space.
Second generation computers used to think slower than the first generation. Second generation computers used to consume less electricity than the first generation. Second generation computers were much less hot than first generation computers. In Second generation computers used high level programming language. Programming languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN were used.
Third Generation Computer
between 1965- 1971 Third Generation Computer Used Integrated circuit in place of transistor which is called short form IC. In third generation computers, the transistors were placed inside the silicon chip, which we also call the semiconductor chip. Third generation computer processing speed was much higher than the first generation computer and second generation computer. In the third generation computer used monitor keyboard operating system.
Fourth Generation Computer
A fourth generation computer was used between 1971-1980. This computer was based on VLSI microprocessor, is a full form very large scale integration of VLSI. Thousands of integrated circuits were put into a single chip in the VLSI microprocessor. Due to the microprocessor, the ability of the computer to work further increased and it used to do a large amount of calculations, this made the size of the computer very small.
Fifth Generation Computer
After 1980 and even today a fifth generation computer is used. This computer is ULSI microprocessor based. USI has full form ultra large scale integration with more than one million transistors inside a chip. Fifth generation computers can perform a lot of works in single time. This new technologies perform fast processing i.e. Fifth Generation Computer is based on AI artificial intelligence software. Fifth generation computers used high level language like C, C++, Java, Dot Net and Python etc.
Types of Fifth Generation Computer
- The laptop
- Ultra book
- Chrome book
Main components of computer
The main components in a computer are as follows.
- Mother board
- CPU / Central Processing Unit i.e. Processor
- RAM-Random Access Memory
- HDD-hard disk drives
- Expansion Card
- Power supply units
We will understand about all these components.
Motherboard: Mother board in computer is also called circuit board. The motherboard has a place for processor memory, hard drive connector, optical drive connector, expansion card, video and audio, along with individual forts. So that all the parts of the computer can be connected with internal and external device.
Central Processing Unit: Processor Central processing unit is an important unit of computer which is found in the mother board itself. The speed of the computer depends on the CPU. The better the processor perform better processing speed.
RAM: Random access memory Random access memory is a volatile memory in a computer. When we turn on the computer, any of our work is on random access memory. No work can be done without random access memory. As we shut down the computer, our data gets deleted from random access memory. It is also called volatile memory.
The size of RAM in a computer in mega bytes MB and Gigabyte GB, more capacity of RAM able better work on the computer.
Hard disk drive: The computer has an important component hard disks drive in which software, files and folders are saved. Our data is stored on the hard disk drive forever and cannot be deleted unless we want to.
Expansion card: The computer has an expansion slot in which we can connect peripheral components. Like if we want to see the good quality of the video, then we can place the video card in the expansion slots, similarly the following cards are.
- Bluetooth card
- network card
- video card
- Audio card
Computer hardware and software:
Computer Hardware: Hardware means anything that we can touch, we call it a hardware part. We can physically touch any part in the computer that we call computer hardware like motherboard hard dicks drive random access memory. This is called all computer hardware.
Software: which we cannot physically touch. The application through which we can do any work is called software. Like MS Office Package, MS Office Package contains applications like MS Word ms-excel, PowerPoint, ms access etc.
In MS Word, we do the work related to documentation, hence it is called software and it is called application software. Software is of different types like system software, application software, utility software.
System Software: The function of system software is to activate the hardware part of the system. And also does a lot of management work inside the computer like user management, file management, database management, date management, software management, network management etc.
Application software: When the system software is installed in the computer, we use application software to do any particular work. For example, if we have to do any work related to the document, we install MS Office. Documents related work done by opening the world in MS Office.
Utility Software: Utility software we use to perform different tasks in a computer such as antivirus software. It is utility software through which to remove viruses in the system and use to recover files.
Important use of computer
Computer is very important in our daily life, so that we can do any work very easily in a short time. Such as the use of computers in science, the use of health and medical research, the use of computers in education. Use of computer is very important to do any work related to business. In business we use computers for marketing, banking sector, stock trading.
If we have to transfer cash from one place to another, then we can transfer cash through banking. Nowadays, much attention has been paid to cashless transactions. There is a lot of emphasis on Digital India in our India.
Computer is being used very well in defense sector. With the help of computer, we can control everything such as anti missile defense system. This device is controlled through computer.
Advantages and disadvantages of computers
As we know that computer is faster than humans Storage capacity is higher in computer.
Multi Tasking: No person can do more than one task simultaneously. Computer performs multi task in few seconds. Solves numerical problems and performs multiple operations.
Speed: The computer has very high calculating speed and completes any task in a short time i.e. in micro seconds.
Accuracy: Accuracy means without mistake, completing the same work, the computer completes any work without mistake.
Data Security: There is also an option of data security in the computer. If we work on the computer, we do a lot of work through the Internet and a virus attack can also come through the network, causing our data to be corrupted or stolen. There is a possibility that for this we use antivirus so that our data is safe.